Day 3 :
- Pharmacology and Toxicology | Applied Pharmacology | Food and Chemical Toxicology
Indiana University School of Medicine, USA
National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan
Babylon University, Iraq
Mufeed J Ewadh has expertise in many fields of biochemistry research in his institute dealing with health problem, herbal extraction and alternative medicine. He did his Post-doctorate course at Marburg University, Germany and participated in electrophoresis workshop in Japan for two weeks as well as in biochemical workshop in Leipzig, Germany. He is the Chief Editor of Medical Journal of Babylon, Iraq.
Introduction: Medicinal plants are considered as important source of medicines and drugs manufacturer because they contain active compounds that had medical biological activity, so it has adopted in the preparation and the preparation of a lot of drugs because of their speed in the therapeutic effect and the lack appearance of negative side effects which caused by medications which chemically manufactured, where underwent a lot of scientific studies and extensive research to uncover some important plants, which have had a significant positive impact on public health and the impact in many diseases, including cancer.
Aim: The present study aimed to use raw Catharanthus roseus as herbal medicinal plant for the purpose of its use in the medical and pharmaceutical fields and alternative medicine, or the so-called herbs medicine, for the purpose of reducing or eliminating the leukemia and complications of this disease.
Methodology: The present study included 60 Albino male mice divided into four groups with count 15 mice for each. Group-A was the control group, Group-B was mice with oral feeding of C. roseus plant, Group-C was induced leukemia mice by subcutaneous injection of (300 mg/kg B.W benzene), while Group-D was induced leukemia mice treated by oral feeding C. roseus plant. "SHIMADZU" HPLC was used for Vincristine estimation in plant and vitamin D in mice serum. ELISA technique was used for serum ferritin determination. UV-VIS spectrophotometer has been used for estimation of GSH-Px and GST activities using special kits, while AAS technique was used for essential trace elements determination. There were Hb and WBC examinations and histopathology study for liver, kidney, spleen and bone marrow were done.
Results: Analysis showed that C. roseus contain Vincristine drug up to148 µg/gm. The following table shows the statistically significant effect of vincristine, antioxidants and other active ingredients on vital parameters of treated mice:
Conclusion: This study concluded that C. roseus had direct impact on biological system included alkaloid VCR, which significantly improve the efficiency of treatment for AL and extend survival in mice and have antioxidant activity in biological system.
Roosevelt University, USA
Prasanth Puthanveetil has done his PhD in Pharmacology especially in the area of cardiovascular diseases from the University of British Columbia. Following his Post-doctoral training at NIEHS/NIH, University of Western Ontario and University of Michigan, he was selected for a full time tenure track faculty position at Roosevelt University School of Pharmacy. He has published more than 22 peer-reviewed articles, in top tier journals. He is an active member of many professional associations including American Heart Association and AACP. He also serves as Editorial Board Member of several peer-reviewed journals. At RUCOP, he has set up his own research program on metabolic signaling in cardiovascular and renal tissue. His special interests include endocrine disorders like diabetes and Cushing’s syndrome and its impact on cardiovascular health.
Statement of the Problem: The widely used potent anti-inflammatory agent, glucocorticoids, shows a behavioral paradox. Even though used extensively for treating severe pain and inflammation, in excess could results in metabolic and endocrine complications resulting in Cushing’s syndrome like symptoms. Even though they produce major side effects following chronic treatment, the primary focus has been on direct genomic effects and very less emphasize has been put on their nongenomic effects. Non genomic mechanisms of glucocorticoids are mostly mediated by various stress kinases. When there is an over activation of this non genomic arm of glucocorticoids could result in metabolic complications that potentiate glucolipotoxic events in cardiovascular tissue.
Theoretical Orientation: In this commentary, I would like to shed light on this non genomic effect of glucocorticoids as shown by my own and other’s work.
Findings: Using in vivo and in vitro model systems, we have shown that glucocorticoids in excess under normal physiological conditions could activate this non genomic pathway mediated by stress kinase pathways leading to glucolipotoxicity in the cardiovascular tissue.
Conclusion & Significance: Making use of this knowledge, we tried to interfere or inhibit the mediators in this non genomic signaling axis and was able to normalize the glucolipotoxicity and associated complications in the cardiovascular tissue. This information will really help to provide more awareness to the population who are on long term glucocorticoid treatment and also in long term stress situations.
King Saud University, KSA
Title: Attenuation of Adriamycin nephropathy by matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in experimental rats: Role of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators
Time : 11:35-12:00
Hanan H Hagar, B Pharm, MS, PhD, is a Professor of Pharmacology in Medical College, King Saud University. She received her BPharm degree (Excellent with honors) from Zagazig University, Egypt. She completed her MPharm degree from Zagazig University, Egypt and PhD from Zagazig University in collaboration with University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, USA. She usually has excellent evaluation and Deanship of Quality. She is a member of many societies and a Member of Advisory Board for many international journals liek Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, Dataset Papers of Pharmacology, Hindawi Publishing Corporation, SciTz Medical and Clinical Toxicology, Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences, JSM Renal Medicine and SRL Nephrology & Therapeutics. She served also as invited reviewer for many national and international journals worldwide as Urological Research (UK); Clinica Chimica Acta (Netherlands); Cell & Tissue Transplantation & Therapy (New-zeland); Digestive Diseases and Sciences (Netherlands) and Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (China). She had actively participated in many local and international conferences as poster or oral presentation. She was invited as a speaker in many conferences. She has published over 30 research articles in peer reviewed ISI international journals. She has been awarded for many projects by many financial sources. These projects were funded by different organizations as King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia; Research Center at Women Students-Medical Studies & Sciences Sections, King Saud University; Research Center at College of Medicine, King Saud University and Saudi Arabia Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC). Due to her scientific record, she was included in the 2009-2010 Edition of "Who's Who in Medicine and Healthcare", the American biographical works “Great Minds of the 21st Century”, 2010 England and “Woman of the year in Medicine and Health care”, 2010.
Implication of oxidative stress and inflammatory mechanisms in adriamycin nephropathy has been suggested. Reactive oxygen species may activate latent matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) that ultimately may induce glomerulosclerosis and fibrosis. Little is known about the effect of MMP inhibitors on focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. This study examined the role of MMP in adriamycin nephropathy as an animal model of glomerulosclerosis using MMP inhibitors, SB-3CT and doxycycline. Forty (40) male Wistar rats were used and allocated into four groups as follows: Normal control rats (n=10), adriamycin treated rats (n=10) and SB-3CT+adriamycin-treated rats (n=10), doxycycline+adriamycin-treated rats (n=10). Adriamycin nephropathy was induced by a single injection of adriamycin (7.5 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. SB-3CT was given at a dose of (1 mg/kg/day, i.p.) while doxycycline was given at a dose of (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.). Therapy was initiated at once after induction of adriamycin nephropathy and continued for 4 weeks. Adriamycin nephropathy resulted in deterioration in lipid profile (elevated serum triglycerides and cholesterol levels) and in kidney function (elevated serum creatinine, BUN) and reduction in serum albumin and total protein levels while their levels were increased in urine. Lipid profile was also changed. Adriamycin-treated rats showed increased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), transforming growth factor-b1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) in the kidney as assessed by ELISA technique. MMP activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9) were also induced using zymography technique and western blot analysis. Histological changes were also noted on kidney using hematoxylin and eosin. Immunohistochemical studies revealed increased staining of collagen IV in the renal cortex. MMP inhibitors, doxycycline and SB-3CT significantly reduced serum BUN, creatinine and renal cytokines. Lipid abnormalities were also corrected back to normal. This was parallel to reduction in collagen IV immunostaining and improvement in histological changes. These results suggested that MMP inhibitors may have promise as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and endothelial cell protective. MMP inhibitors may be potential future candidates to provide more effective therapy to halt the development of glomerulosclerosis.
Cornell University, USA
K Bischoff is the Director of the Analytical Toxicology Unit of the New York State Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) at Cornell University for 13 years. She teaches clinical toxicology to veterinary students at Cornell University and has lectured as an invited speaker on topics related to veterinary toxicology around the United States and Asia and started working towards Master’s degree in Public Health in 2017.
Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins and activated charcoal within the first 24-hours post exposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 hours after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia.
Peter Osei Boamah is a Senior Lecturer at the School of Applied Sciences and Arts, Department of Ecological Agriculture, Bolgatanga Polytechnic, Ghana. He has expertise in synthesis and application of low molecular weight chitosan and has published many articles. He is also a Reviewer of number of journals.
Chitosan and its derivatives possess valuable properties for its use as a sorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution. In the present study, the thermodynamics of Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ sorption onto low molecular weight chitosan (CS8) using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) were investigated. Based on the ITC data, the stoichiometry data were 0.36±0.023, 0.813±0.015 and 0.029±0.006 for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+, respectively. The binding association constant (Ka) varied from (1.74±0.333)×104M-1 to (17.3±18.9)×104M-1. Also, all binding reactions to low molecular weight chitosan (CS8) were enthalpically favored and the interaction between the sorbent and the metal ions were enthalpically not driven at 25 °C. Furthermore, free energy of reaction values were all determined to be negative indicating spontaneous reactions. In conclusion, the ITC instrument was successfully used to measure directly the stoichiometry (N), binding association constant (Ka), the enthalpy change (ΔH) and the entropy change (ΔS).